By Jianyang Zhou
"The NCL normal Constraint Language"presents the NCL language that is an outline language in traditional mathematical good judgment for modeling and fixing constraint pride difficulties. NCL differs from different declarative languages: It types difficulties certainly in a simplified kind of first-order common sense with quantifiers, Boolean good judgment, numeric constraints, set operations and logical capabilities; it solves difficulties by way of combined set programming over the combined area of genuine numbers, integers, Booleans, dates/times, references, and specifically units. The ebook makes use of lots of examples and tutorials to demonstrate NCL and its functions. it's meant for researchers and builders within the fields of common sense programming, constraint programming, optimization, modeling, operations study and synthetic intelligence, who will study from a brand new programming language and theoretical foundations for business applications.
Dr. Jianyang Zhou is the inventor of NCL and has labored for its industrialization for greater than 10 years.
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Additional info for The NCL Natural Constraint Language
N" as its file path; z ["DB" : "user" : "password"]: a database with "DB", "user", "password" as its identifier, user name and password. The type of a pool is integer (int). That is, the handle of a data pool can be used as an integer. 2. Note that a text file pool should be distinguished from an included file. The latter always occurs alone as a statement while the former can be part of an integer expression (a pool handle) or part of a control such as dataconnection. Data Connection dataconnection poolhandle o | | | | | | | 2 m poolhandle poolhandle m 2 '2' m poolhandle poolhandle m '2' @ m poolhandle poolhandle m @ '@' m poolhandle poolhandle m '@' o int 3 Grammar and Semantics 55 Here, dataconnection is used to specify and control input and output pools.
Function Identifier Different from procedural languages, a function in NCL is logical. The function identifier ID itself is a variable and can be constrained internally to determine the type and value of the function. Externally it should be consistent with the whole constraint system. Argument Arguments are passed to a function by setting up unification relations over arguments between the caller and the receiving function. Global Variable Variables defined outside of a function are considered global to the function.
Strset is the set of candidate elements of strset. Reference Set Extraction refsetextract o Ǎref | refset | refset | Ǎrefset Ǎref represents the domain of reference ref. refset is the set of certainly accepted elements of the reference set refset. refset is the total set of all possible elements of refset. Ǎrefset is the set of candidate elements of refset. 1 gives some examples.