Particle Accelerators - CERN Summer Student Program by J. Jowett

By J. Jowett

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Jowett Particle Accelerators, Lecture 4, Page 1 Aerial view of LEP qIn reality, the machine is underground and mostly invisible. M. Jowett Particle Accelerators, Lecture 4, Page 2 LEP Key Facts qLargest machine in the world (LHC will be the same size) qWorks at high energy and high precision frontiers of particle physics qProject approved in 1983 qCommissioned in 1989, performance at Z resonance (45 GeV) has been rising since then. qDominating world activity of testing the Standard Model qLater phase (LEP2) at higher energy(> 90 GeV).

M. Jowett Particle Accelerators, Lecture 3, Page 9 Notes on Straight Section Optics qThis is one half of an experimental straight section which is actually symmetric about the interaction point (IP2, the L3 experiment, on left) qPlot includes first 3 regular FODO cells of arc. qHorizontal β-function and dispersion now have different behaviour qDispersion suppressor (special quadrupoles and missing bending magnets) used to reduce Dx to zero in interaction and RF region. qLow-β insertion used to reduce β-functions to very small values at interaction point.

The new transfer matrix is  1 M = M0  − 1  f ⇒ cos 2 πQ = cos 2 πQ0 − 0  1  β0 sin 2 πQ0 2f Writing Q = Q0 + ∆Q, we find, by expanding that ∆Q = β0 4 πf The β-function measures the sensitivity of the optics of the ring to perturbations. We already saw that it provides a measure of the relative size of the beam in different places. Design of accelerator ring optics is usually concerned with providing a suitable form of the β-functions in both planes. M. Jowett Particle Accelerators, Lecture 2, Page 14 Optics Design qPractical optics design is usually based on numerical calculation with special programs Analytical understanding of simple cases is an essential guide.

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