By Jakob Flury, Reiner Rummel, Christoph Reigber, Markus Rothacher, Gerd Boedecker, Ulrich Schreiber
In the nationwide German geoscientific learn and improvement programme "GEOTECHNOLOGIEN", funded by means of the Federal Ministry of schooling and examine (BMBF) and the German learn beginning (DFG), the examine subject "Observation of the approach Earth from house" used to be chosen as one among thirteen key parts during this programme. in the course of the first learn section for this subject matter from 2002 to 2004 six tasks have been finished protecting Earth gravity box and Earth rotation learn. those six initiatives are on the topic of the information exploitation and guidance of study ideas for the gravity box satellite tv for pc missions CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE, to the combination of geodetic commentary thoughts for a consumer centre in the foreign Earth Rotation carrier and to advancements in remark and research ideas for airborne gravimetry and ring lasers. This publication offers an in depth precis of the acquired effects, that are appropriate for a vast medical group operating in gravity box and Earth rotation examine.
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Extra info for Observation of the Earth System from Space
Additionally to the comparison between kinematic and reduced-dynamic orbits, the variance-covariance-matrix of kinematic orbits clearly reveals such ˇ correlations (D. Svehla, personal contact). For completeness it should be mentioned, that also smoothing methods like polynomial regression and smoothing splines have been tested in simulations in order to reduce the inﬂuence of noisy observations. These methods were not adopted to real data, since the accuracy of the estimated gravity decreased though the internal statistics of the accelerations improved.
These are based on kinematic orbits and can be classiﬁed as two-step-methods (1. GPSobservations → kinematic orbits; 2. kinematic orbits → gravity ﬁeld parameters). , 2005) and acceleration approaches (point-wise, see Austen et al. (2002), Reubelt et al. (2003a,b) and average, see Ditmar and van Eck van der Sluijs (2004)). The implementation of such algorithms is motivated by the fact, that kinematic orbits can nowadays be determined with ˇ an accuracy of less than 5 cm (Svehla and Rothacher, 2003, 2004), oﬀering comparable results to the classical approach.
A very simple method would be to set a threshold value for the orbit and/or baseline diﬀerences between the kinematic and the reduced dynamic CHAMP orbit and remove all observations which exceed this limit. The comparison is more valuable on the level of baselines than on the level of positions, since reduced dynamic baselines provide a better reference for evaluation than absolute coordinates (as already explained in Sect. 3) and jumps can easier be detected. Thus, a kinematic baseline indicating a diﬀerence to a reduced dynamic baseline of 5 cm can already be classiﬁed as outlier whereas an orbit diﬀerence of 5 cm cannot necessarily be interpreted as an outlier.