By Christopher M. Dent (auth.)
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Extra resources for New Free Trade Agreements in the Asia-Pacific
Where a ‘positive list’ approach is adopted, only those sectors and services listed in the agreement are liberalised, and hence adding further items to this list therefore requires further negotiation under the agreement’s periodic review mechanisms. Regulatory conformity is another area where implementation modalities may vary signiﬁcantly. g. on intellectual property rights) that extend beyond existing WTO agreements while other FTAs simply seek to be WTO consistent. Some FTA partners may adopt mutual recognition provisions or even harmonise aspects of their commercial policies in particular areas that are different to those chosen in other FTA partnerships.
Japan and the US (see Appendix C). The difﬁculties of coalescing different FTA model arrangements into one 20 New Free Trade Agreements in the Asia-Paciﬁc uniﬁed arrangement has important implications for the lattice regionalism hypothesis (see Chapter 4). g. the Thailand–Australia FTA. As we later note, WTO rules dictate that the majority of the FTA’s provisions must be implemented within ten years (Article XXIV, clause 5c) but, as with sectoral coverage, the rules are sufﬁciently vague to permit much variation here too.
Closer collaboration in general: FTAs can help network together ﬁrms in joint ventures and other forms of strategic alliances through the market integration effects noted above or by government sponsored co-operative programmes that may be incorporated into the FTA. This collaboration should result in a greater transfer of technology and skills across the FTA and additional synergetic effects. These effects are more difﬁcult to quantify because changes in such factors are open to many other determining variables.