Motyl: the Turn to the Right (Cloth) by AJ MOTYL

By AJ MOTYL

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7 That states sometimes overreact to foreign threats is if anything still more acknowledged; indeed, for political scientists and historians, the default explanation for a given war seems to be that one or both sides tragically exaggerated the menace posed by the other. Scholars less often acknowledge that states sometimes “under-balance,” or insufficiently oppose the ambitions of other states, but Schweller8 has explored this phenomenon as well. Under what conditions, then, will great powers stray either above or below their power lines?

Thus the industrial and trading game which, at least in theory, had allowed for increasing-sum outcomes had been transformed into a constant (or in relative terms) a zero-sum game among great powers. Conflict would increase accordingly. In each of these episodes, countries were stimulated (1) to act quickly; (2) to expand their territorial control; and (3) to advantage themselves on the basis of a game of constant-sum. 27 Failures of peace:€when history failed to turn The 1780s and 1870s The failures of war (based on excessive or inappropriate notions of power) raise the question of whether peace is ever possible.

One after another, French and Napoleonic armies toppled regimes in Italy, along the Rhine, in the Low Countries, Spain, and Switzerland. Prussia was nearly eclipsed as a great power when it was defeated by Napoleon in 1806. The French emperor occupied Vienna in 1809, always pressing for greater territorial concessions. In other words, military expansion took on a new lease on life and intensive (purely economic) expansion went into the discard. War and the acquisition of territory once again seemed to become profitable strategies.

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