By Frank Halisch, Julius Kuhl
Review of present developments within the psychology of motivation and volition, overlaying simple learn in addition to developmen- tal and utilized facets. goal and volition are consi- dered in chapters on habit dynamics, self-regulation, and regulate over purpose and activities.
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They had students provide attributions for failure at a midterm exam, as well as report their affective reactions. Performance at the next exam was then related to both the attributions and the affects. Covington and Omelich report that the most prominent association patterns were between low ability-humiliation-performance decrements and lack of effort-guilt-performance increments. Furthermore, attributions were significantly related to exam performance only through the mediating influence of affect.
Block, 1973; Pleck, 1976). Consistent with these distinctions, various authors have referred to different patterns of development for the two sexes. For example, 20 years ago Douvan and Adelson (1966) described adolescent experience for boys and girls and concluded that: The key terms in adolescent development for the boy in our culture are the erotic, autonomy (assertiveness, independence, achievement) and identity. For the girl the comparable terms are the erotic, the interpersonal, and identity ...
Kohlberg, 1976) have been male centered and have focussed on an emerging morality of rights connected with justice and fairness. She believes that for women, however, the moral ideology is more concerned with the ethic of care and responsibility. In moving from adolescence to adulthood, both sexes share a common dilemma - a conflict between integrity and care. The resolution of this dilemma is however approached through opposing perspectives for the two sexes (Gilligan, 1982): While the ethic of rights is a manifestation of equal respect, balancing the claims of other and self, the ethic of responsibility rests on an understanding that gives rise to compassion and care.