By Joel F. Habener (auth.), Joel F. Habener (eds.)
The peptide hormones are small proteins that keep an eye on mobile metabolism via their particular interactions with tissues of the endocrine, anxious, and immune platforms, in addition to in embry onic improvement. in past times ten years, refinements within the options of recombinant DNA expertise have led to the cloning of genes encoding nearly 50 various hormonal and regulatory peptides, together with these within which the peptides themselves and the mRNAs encoding the peptides are found in in simple terms hint quantities within the tissues of foundation. as well as provid ing the coding sequences of well-known hormonal and regulatory peptides, gene sequencing has exposed new bioactive peptides encoded within the precursor seasoned hormones which are then liberated besides the hormonal peptides in the course of mobile cleavages of the precursors. The encoding of a number of peptides in one mono cistronic mRNA seems to be a genetic mechanism for the gener ation of biologic diversification with no requiring amplification of gene sequences. of the targets within the meeting of this publication are to pre despatched, in a single quantity, the recognized fundamental constructions of the genes encoding a number of of the polypeptide hormones and similar regulatory peptides, and to supply an account of many of the ap proaches which were used to spot and choose the cloned genes encoding those polypeptides. The contents of the 2 in troductory chapters are meant to supply the reader with a quick history of the methods to gene cloning and the struc ture and expression of hormone-encoding genes.
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Extra info for Molecular Cloning of Hormone Genes
It is believed that the glucose is acting either directly or indirectly through mechanisms that alter the efficiency of the initiation of translation of proinsulin mRNA. Regulation at the level of posttranscriptional processing of mRNA precursors is not yet clearly established. However, the intriguing findings that the primary transcripts derived from the calcitonin gene and substance P are alternately spliced to provide two or more messenger RNAs encoding chimeric protein precursors, containing both common and different amino acid sequences, suggest that regulation might take place at the level of processing of the calcitonin-gene transcripts (29).
This property of these sequences raises the interesting possibilities that the loops may be sites of interactions of the specific binding proteins, perhaps by way of a destabilization of the chromatin or of the helical structure of the DNA caused by torsional forces on the helical DNA that comprises the loop or both. 7. COUPLING OF EFFECTOR ACTION TO CELLUlAR RESPONSE The second qualitative mode of gene control consists of the processes that are involved in the induction and suppression of the expression of genes that are normally expressed within a specific Gene Structure and Regulation 43 tissue.