Modelling Hot Deformation of Steels: An Approach to by J. G. Lenard (auth.), Professor John G. Lenard (eds.)

By J. G. Lenard (auth.), Professor John G. Lenard (eds.)

Computer Aided Engineering might be outlined as an method of fixing tech­ nological difficulties within which such a lot or all the steps concerned are computerized by utilizing pcs, facts bases and mathematical versions. The good fortune of this ap­ proach, contemplating scorching forming, is tied very on to an knowing of fabric behaviour while subjected to deformation at excessive temperatures. there's basic contract between engineers that no longer sufficient is understood approximately that subject -and this gave the preliminary impetus for the venture defined within the current examine. The authors secured a examine furnish from NATO (Special learn provide #390/83) with a mandate to review the "State-of-the-Art of managed Rolling". What follows is the results of that examine. There are 5 chapters during this Monograph. the 1st one, entitled "State-of-the­ paintings of managed Rolling" discusses business and laboratory practices and study designed to help within the improvement of microalloyed steels of stronger caliber. keep on with­ ing this is often the bankruptcy "Methods of settling on Stress-Strain Curves at increased Temperatures". The relevant problem this is the material's resistance to deformation or in different phrases, its circulate power, the information of that is completely crucial for the effective and in your price range usage of the pcs controlling the rolling process.

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For obtaining a constant strain rate, smust be reduced continuously during the test in such a way that (23) This condition if fulfilled when using a "cam-plastometer" [31]. Since the simulation of technical hot forming processes requires a high absolute strain rate, the increase of Model/ing Hot Defonnation of Steels Page 31 +-t-- 20 Figure 7: Scheme of Torsion Test temperature of the specimen due to adiabatic heating must be discussed (obtaining an isothermal flow curve is only possible by interrupting the experiment at certain intervals; however, this may cause some other errors).

In many cases the effect of hydrostatic stress on the flow stress can be neglected so that (16) For the determination of flow stress from experimental data, it can be written as a first approximation (17) Modelling Hot Defonnation of Steels Page 28 Using Equations 13, 14 and 17, strain and stress can be calculated from the measured curve F(s). In this calculation, the error of force only propagates into stress while the error of reduction of height propagates both into stress and strain. So it can be expected that the experimental error of s is more important than that of force F.

The amount of deformation per rolling pass affects the amount and mode of precipitation of carbides. Finally, the finish rolling temperature alters the amount of precipitation on further cooling. In addition to the TEGART and GITTINS description above, an unrecrystallized, elongated austenite can take on a copper texture {124} < 112> to {146} < 112 > (LESLIE [18]). As discussed above, the final grain structure will be fine grained and equiaxed. In partially recrystallized austenite, there will be different amounts of deformation in the austenite grains depending on when and if they are recrystallized grains.

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