Metallographic Specimen Preparation: Optical and Electron by Delmar V. Miley, Arthur E. Calabra (auth.), James L. McCall,

By Delmar V. Miley, Arthur E. Calabra (auth.), James L. McCall, William M. Mueller (eds.)

/.letallography is far greater than taking impressive images at excessive magnifications or sharpening and etching specimens in this type of manner that no scratches should be obvious. primarily, metallography is the actual metallurgist's most dear and so much used device for learning metals. even though it is likely to be his oldest software, it definitely isn't prone to develop into out of date. relatively, the continuing calls for which were put upon fabrics have required extra specific charac­ terizations in their microstructures and this, in flip, has re­ quired the metallographer to advance new recommendations to make those characterizations. now not too a long time in the past, the metallographer had purely optical microscopes with which to check his specimens. Now he has elec­ tron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, and a complete host of tools which have been unknown to him just a fairly few years in the past. This has pressured him to profit not just the right way to use those new tools and the way to interpret the knowledge that they supply however it additionally has made him increase new innovations for getting ready the samples for examination.

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PH 4 Add 1 part 30% HOper 200 parts solution once a aay 5. Temperature: 40-70°C Voltage: 1-3 volts Current Density: 30 ma/cm 2 Agitation: Vigorous stirring Anode: Anode nickel Zinc (Ref. 23) 'Solutlon: 6. Zn(CN)2 60g/ R. NaCN 23g/R. NaOH 53g/R. Temperature: Room temperature Voltage: 1-4 volts Current Density: 10-15 ma/dm 2 Anode: Zinc Brashear Process for Silvering (Ref. 23. Stock Solutions: See also ref. 51) A. Silver nitrate 20g Water to 300 ml B. Potassium hydroxide l4g Water to 100 ml (Make fresh or store in polythene) C.

The second mounting step adds pure resin, so that the resulting final mount has a relatively small area of alumina exposed. Mounting for Conductivity The plastics used for metallographic mounts are normally electrical insulators, so special steps are necessary if electrolytic preparation methods are to be used. We will describe several methods of physically achieving electrical contact with the specimen and methods to make the mount itself electrically conductive (23, 24,27,53,54). 30 DELMAR V.

Na 3 C6 HZ0 7 ' HZO 100g/R. NH 4 C1 2 SOg/R. NH 4 0H to adjust pH to 8-10 Dissolve in order given in warm distilled water. Plating: Bring solution to low boil, immerse specimens. Plating time about 1-1/2 hours. ABRASIVE CUTTING IN METALLOGRAPHY James A. Nelson and Robert M. Westrich Buehler Ltd. Evanston, Illinois 60204 INTRODUCTION Abrasive cutting is the most widely used method of sectioning materials for microscopic examination and other material investigations. Conventional abrasive cutting using consumable wheels is the most popular method for routine metallographic sectioning because it is fast, accurate and economical.

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