Measurement and Control Basics, Fifth Edition by Thomas A. Hughes

By Thomas A. Hughes

Excellent for lecture room use or self-study, this newly up to date best-selling ebook has supplied hundreds of thousands of scholars, technicians, engineers, and revenues individuals with a pragmatic creation to the foundations, applied sciences, and methods utilized in business procedure keep watch over. This 5th version takes a similar confirmed procedure of prior versions. every one bankruptcy starts with uncomplicated definitions and ideas that permit readers to turn into good versed within the ideas essential to under-stand the variables that have an effect on method regulate platforms. New gains within the 5th version contain stronger assurance of strategy keep watch over pcs and commercial networks and a brand new bankruptcy on liquid density size. Sections have been additionally additional on human computing device interface (HMI), instant units and networks. The e-book contains options to routines that make it more desirable for self-study

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Response of a first-order system to step The time constant also provides an insight into the physical response of a system. Figure 2-7 shows the output response curves for two different “firstorder” systems where each system has a different time constant. It can be seen from the two different curves that as the time constant increased, the response of the system to a step change becomes slower. The first system has a time constant of one second, and it takes five seconds to reach 99 percent of full- 36 Measurement and Control Basics, Fifth Ed.

Chapter 2 – Process Control Loops 51 An important question you may confront when implementing cascade control is how to select the most advantageous secondary controlled variable. Quite often, the designer has a large number of choices. The overall strategy or goal should be to get as much of the process lag into the outer loop as possible while, at the same time, getting as many of the disturbances as possible to enter the inner loop. Figures 2-16 and 2-17 illustrate two different cascade control arrangements for a furnace that is used to increase the temperature of a fluid that is passing through it.

List examples of each type. 2 List some typical disturbances that can enter or affect a process and tend to drive it from a desired set point. 3 List the four essential elements of a process control system. 4 What function is performed by a process controller in a control loop? 5 What type of instrument is identified by each of the following instrument tag numbers: (a) PIC-200, (b) FV-250, (c) LC-500, and (d) HS-100? 6 What is the primary requirement of any process control system? 7 Define the term system error with respect to a control system.

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