Lung Development Biological and Clinical Perspectives. by Philip Farrell

By Philip Farrell

Lung improvement: organic and medical views: Biochemistry and body structure, quantity I, presents a entire and multidisciplinary treatise with reference to surfactant-related concerns in lung maturation. regardless of the planned emphasis on biochemistry during this quantity, the purpose is to put this knowledge within the viewpoint of anatomy, body structure, and medical perinatology.
The ebook is geared up into 4 components. half I bargains a short old viewpoint by means of reviewing the chronology of medical and uncomplicated advances. half II then establishes a body of medical reference via reviewing the morphology and cytology of lung improvement and the body structure of pulmonary surfactant. phases of improvement and adaptations within the maturation technique are emphasised, whereas cautions to the biochemist are provided with appreciate to interpretation of experimental information. half III presents an advent to lung biochemistry. half IV offers with the developmental biochemistry of lung phospholipid metabolism; the featured compound is the foremost surfactant part, phosphatidylcholine (PC). a focus for dialogue matters regulatory mechanisms working to manage the creation of saturated computer in the course of overdue gestational improvement of the fetal lung.

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B . ), p . 1. Dekker, New York. 3 The Cytology of the Lung: infrastructure of the Respiratory Epithelium and Extracellular Lining Layers CHARLES KUHN III I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Introduction The Bronchi A. The Cytology of the Bronchial Epithelium B. The Mucous Blanket C. The Development of the Bronchial Epithelium The Bronchioles Brush Cells and Endocrine Cells Acinar Epithelium A. Cytology of the Acinar Region B. Development of the Acinar Epithelium C. The Alveolar Lining Layer Concluding Remarks References 27 2 8 28 35 36 3 6 40 42 42 45 46 49 49 I.

3 Although more ultrastructural morphometric analysis is needed, it has been estimated that type II pneumonocytes normally account for no more than 15% of the total cells present in the lung parenchyma (26). Of interest is the fact that type I pneumonocytes cover the major part of alveoli due to their large diameter and the long cytoplasmic extensions characteristic of these cells. Nuclei are usually located centrally in these relatively thin cells, giving them the appearance of fried eggs, if the nucleus is considered the yolk.

For instance, by two months of age, the length of the acinus has nearly doubled its neonatal size. A striking observation is that the alveoli develop in a centripetal direction, first on the saccules and their derivatives (the alveolar ducts), then on the respiratory bronchioles. In later childhood, alveoli will develop on terminal bronchioles. The size of the alveoli continues to increase until growth of the chest wall ceases with attainment of adult thoracic size. Figure 2 presents an illustration of three stages of fetal lung development that are particularly well studied in laboratory animals—glandular, canalicular, and saccular—along with an indication of their timing in various species.

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