By Claus Grupen

The e-book provides an obtainable account of the resources of ionising radiation and the equipment of radiation defense. the fundamentals of nuclear physics that are at once on the topic of radiation safety are in short mentioned. The e-book describes the devices of radiation safeguard, the size strategies, organic results of radiation, environmental radiation, and plenty of purposes of radiation. for every bankruptcy there's a challenge part with complete options. a close thesaurus and plenty of invaluable details in appendixes entire the booklet. the writer has addressed the difficulty of internationality to ensure that the textual content and, particularly, the advanced laws should be simply interpreted not just in Europe and the USA but in addition in different nations. the topic of radiation safeguard calls for a certain quantity of arithmetic. when you have forgotten the elemental principles of calculus a brief refresher path within the type of a mathematical appendix is added.

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**Example text**

22) σpair ∼ Z 2 ln E γ . 100 MeV) For high energies (in the ultra-relativistic limit, E γ the cross section approaches an energy-independent constant value. 11 shows the mass attenuation and mass absorption coefficients for water as absorber and Fig. 12 those for lead. The mass absorption coefficient can be measured equally well in the unit cm−1 or in (g/cm2 )−1 , where attenuation coefficient absorption coefficient μ(cm−1 ) = μ (g/cm2 )−1 ρ (ρ – density of the absorber in g/cm3 ). As a consequence of the photoelectric and Compton effect an electron is missing in the atomic shell.

It is possible to consider for charged particles a certain range – depending on their energy. In contrast, this is not possible for photons; only statistical probabilities can be given for the intensity attenuation when photons penetrate layers of material. The intensity I0 of a monoenergetic photon beam is attenuated in a certain layer of material of thickness x according to photoelectric effect Compton effect pair production attenuation of photons 42 4 Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter Absorption of γ rays The absorption of γ rays from a 60 Co source was investigated with a scintillation counter.

For this purpose an aluminum absorber of variable thickness is placed between source and detector. The count rate as a function of absorber thickness is shown in the figure. 28 MeV (see Fig. 5). The electrons from the low-energy transition of the 90 Sr decay are absorbed relatively quickly (compare Fig. 4). 75 mm Al) are related to electrons from the 90 Y decay. Even though the absorption of β rays cannot really be described by an exponential law from a theoretical viewpoint, an effective absorption coefficient for continuous β-ray emitters can still be given.