By Charles Jones
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Extra info for International Relations: A Beginner's Guide
For the most part they are content with a division of labour by which the states in which they operate provide labour, infrastructure, a framework of law, and access to resources and markets for which they, in return, pay as little as they can get away with in wages, taxes, and royalties. Set aside for a moment the terms of these bargains between state and firm, which have often come to appear grossly unfair with the passage of time. Set aside also the good faith of both parties, which has not always been assured.
2 The shadow of history 3 The global economy 4 Armed conflict 5 Making sense of international relations Further Reading Acknowledgements Index Abbreviations BISA British International Studies Association BP British Petroleum (the abbreviated form is now the official title of the firm) CoW Correlates of War DC Developed country DRC Democratic Republic of Congo EEZ Exclusive economic zone EU European Union FARC Fuerzas Armadas de la Revolución Colombiana FDI Foreign direct investment FIFA Fédération International de Football Association G77 Group of 77 (in UNCTAD and similar bodies) GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDP Gross domestic product GNP Gross national product HSBC Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (the abbreviated form is now the official title of the firm) IFI International Financial Institution IGO Intergovernmental organization IMF International Monetary Fund INGO International non-governmental organization IP International Politics IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPE International Political Economy IR International Relations (the academic field) ISA International Studies Association ISI Import substituting industrialization LDC Less developed country MID Militarized Interstate Dispute NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NIC Newly industrializing country NGO Non-governmental organization OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries TNC Transnational corporation UK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland UN(O) United Nations (Organization) UNCLOS United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees UNSC United Nations Security Council US(A) United States (of America) USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) WISC World International Studies Committee WMD Weapons of mass destruction WTO World Trade Organization Note: Unless otherwise indicated, dollars ($) are US dollars, 1 billion = 1,000,000,000 (1 × 109) and 1 trillion = 1,000,000,000,000 (1 × 1012).
Very often such dealings are regulated by international agreements and are routinely handled by organizations such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. Heads of government now often deal with urgent and conflictive issues by meeting face to face, a task which would once have been the province of diplomats. In some regions of the world, most notably Europe, relations between states have gone beyond co-operation to something approaching federation.