By Shigeto Tsuru (eds.)
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Extra resources for Human Resources, Employment and Development: Volume 1: The Issues
All those motivations need to be replaced by other motivations, if the overall societal drive for progress is not to be reduced. While I do not intend to answer all the problems relating to the socialist countries, or to the developing countries, I would emphasise the necessity of attempting the analysis of all the factors that influence the human motivations contributing to socio-economic progress. This problem area, largely neglected, deserves great attention. IV HUMAN NEEDS In the light of what has been said thus far, the human factor appears mainly as a driving force in economic progress.
22 3 Human Resources and Development THE SECOND QUESTION: WHAT CAN PEOPLE DO? J6zef Pajestka argues (pp. 4-5) 'that the development process is not historically predetermined but that it can be influenced'. In other words, the course of history is not traced in advance, and man remains master of his destiny. This belief in the possibility of man's freedom of action certainly deserves forceful reaffirmation because it underlies all our endeavours to improve economic and social development. But without denying this possibility, we must yet ask ourselves how much room for manoeuvre any particular country actually has in this fourth quarter of the twentieth century.
THE RETENTION OF THE SURPLUS AND THE VULNERABILITY OF THE SYSTEM The importance ofthe above points suggests that a detailed explanation should be given of the manner in which the dynamic key to the system functions. The dynamic need continually to augment the surplus and 38 Human Resources and Development reproductive accumulation could not be fulfilled if increased productivity led to a drop in prices. That is not how capitalism works. This drop in prices can only be avoided if demand increases to an extent which is at least sufficient to absorb the level of supply resulting from the growth in productivity.