How Women Got Their Curves and Other Just-So Stories: by David P Barash, Judith Eve Lipton

By David P Barash, Judith Eve Lipton

So how did girls get their curves? Why have they got breasts, whereas different mammals purely improve breast tissue whereas lactating, and why do ladies menstruate, whilst nearly no different beings accomplish that? What are the explanations for lady orgasm? Why are human adult females stored at midnight approximately their very own time of ovulation and greatest fertility, and why are they the one animals to adventure menopause?

David P. Barash and Judith Eve Lipton, coauthors of acclaimed books on human sexuality and gender, talk about the theories scientists have complicated to give an explanation for those evolutionary enigmas (sometimes referred to as "Just-So tales" through their detractors) and current hypotheses in their personal. a few medical theories are in keeping with valid empirical facts, whereas others are natural hypothesis. Barash and Lipton distinguish among what's strong and what continues to be doubtful, skillfully incorporating their specialist wisdom of biology, psychology, animal habit, anthropology, and human sexuality into their unique opinions. Inviting readers to ascertain the proof and draw their very own conclusions, Barash and Lipton inform an evolutionary suspense tale that captures the thrill and thrill of precise medical detection.

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Let’s face it, the uterus is in a difficult situation: it must protect itself against invading pathogens while not mounting such a robust defense that it subjects sperm to withering friendly fire. As part of the female reproductive tract’s balancing act, the cervix produces thick, acidic mucous that prevents bacteria from ascending to the uterus—a defense system that needs to let down its guard during sexual receptivity. When it comes to uterine infections, a woman’s cervix is a major protective structure, preventing microorganisms from gaining access to the upper reproductive organs.

Either way, it remains mysterious how signaling their reproductive condition might confer a benefit upon menstruating women relative to others. Perhaps the signaling hypothesis might still be saved, however, if the signal were directed toward men, informing them of the same important information. But if so, why not just broadcast the requisite chemical message, possibly via pheromones (or ectohormones, molecules specialized to operate between different individuals, as opposed to the better-known endohormones, which act inside a body)?

10 Intrauterine devices (IUDs), a means of birth control, provide further evidence for this hypothesis. They have long been known to cause a substantial increase in menstrual bleeding, which reduced their popularity, although not their effectiveness. Their mode of operation had long been unclear, but IUDs are now known to induce a mild inflammation of the endometrium, which responds with enhanced menstruation, although this effect typically lasts for only a few months after insertion. It is thought that IUDs act as contraceptives in part because they signal or mimic the early stages of implantation.

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