By Barbara Fadem
High-Yield™ Behavioral Science, Fourth version presents a concise evaluate of the behavioral technology fabric demonstrated at the USMLE Step 1. The High-Yield™ define structure, with tables, diagrams, pictures, and pictures to make clear very important fabric, presents a focused, effective evaluation for either direction checks and the USMLE. sufferer Snapshots current medical situations and pose particular questions. Annotated solutions and reasons look on the finish of every bankruptcy. This variation is completely up to date, in line with DSM-IV-TR, and reorganized into six significant sections: The existence Cycle; organic and mental Bases of habit; Psychopathology; Social habit; The perform of drugs; and Epidemiology and information.
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Extra resources for High-Yield Behavioral Science (4th Edition) (High-Yield Series)
Sleep architecture and percentage of time spent in each sleep stage change with age and in depression (Table 7-2). 3. Use of alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates is associated with decreased REM and delta sleep. NEUROTRANSMITTERS are associated with the production of sleep (Table 7-3). II Sleep Disorders A. CLASSIFICATION OF SLEEP DISORDERS. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (4th edition, text revision [DSM-IV-TR]) there are two major categories of sleep disorders: 28 SLEEP TABLE 7-1 29 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AWAKE STATE AND OF SLEEP STAGES Percentage of Sleep Time in Young Adults Characteristics — Active mental concentration — Relaxation with eyes closed Stage 1 5% Lightest stage of sleep characterized by peacefulness, slowed pulse and respiration, decreased blood pressure, and episodic body movements Stage 2 45% Largest percentage of sleep time, bruxism (tooth grinding) Stages 3 and 4 25% (decreases with age) REM 25% (decreases with age); increases in depression Deepest, most relaxed stage of sleep; sleep disorders, such as night terrors, sleepwalking (somnambulism), and bed-wetting (enuresis) may occur Periods occur every 90 min; dreaming; penile and clitoral erection; increased cardiovascular activity; absenceof skeletal muscle movement; REM deprivation leads to REM “rebound” and transient psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety or psychosis Sleep Stage Associated EEG Pattern Awake Adapted from Fadem B.
LEARNING is the acquisition of new behavior patterns. METHODS of learning include habituation and sensitization as well as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. These methods form the basis of several behavioral management techniques. Habituation and Sensitization II IEN T • • P Patient Snapshot 5-1. A medical student working in the office of a pediatrician notices that 2 children respond quite differently to repeated needle sticks. A 3-month-old girl who AP H S receives daily heel sticks to monitor her blood disorder stops withdrawing her foot after she has had her heel stuck 10 times.
RESPONSE ACQUISITION AND EXTINCTION 1. , crying in response to the sight of the nurse) is learned. 2. , the injection). 3. , crying). D. RELATED CONCEPTS 1. Aversive conditioning. , medication that causes nausea). Ideally, this pairing creates an association between the unwanted behavior and the aversive stimulus and alcohol drinking ceases. IEN T • • P Patient Snapshot 5-3. A 66-year-old man in the ICU who has had a stroke learns that he cannot communicate his discomfort to his caregivers when he receives painful or uncomAP H S fortable treatment.