By Daisuke Shindo, Hiraga Kenji
High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) has develop into a strongest strategy for investigating the inner constitution of fabrics on an atomic scale of round 0.1 nm. The authors truly clarify either the speculation and perform of HREM for fabrics technology. as well as a basic formula of the imaging means of HREM, there's special rationalization of snapshot simulationindispensable for interpretation of high-resolution pictures. crucial details on applicable imaging stipulations for staring at lattice photographs and constitution pictures is gifted, and techniques for extracting structural details from those observations are in actual fact proven, together with examples in complex fabrics. Dislocations, interfaces, and surfaces are handled, and fabrics comparable to composite ceramics, high-Tc superconductors, and quasicrystals also are thought of. incorporated are sections at the most up-to-date tools and methods, reminiscent of the imaging plate and quantitative HREM.
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Extra resources for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy for Materials Science
13b), weak superlattice reflections, which can be indexed by 011, 004, and so on, appear together with strong fundamental reflections which result from the fundamental fcc structure. 14 shows a change in image contrast of calculated Fig. 13. a Atomic arrangement of an Au 3 Cd ordered structure. b Simulated diffraction pattern of Au 3Cd. The white circle indicates an objective aperture for observing a superstructure image of Au 3Cd 29 high-resolution images as a function of specimen thickness. These images were formed with a transmitted beam and superlattice reflections using the aperture indicated in Fig.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. ° (1991) Mater Trans JIM 33:868 Yoshizawa Y, Yamaguchi K (1990) Mater Trans JIM 31:307 Shindo D, Hiraga K, Hirabayashi M, Kobayashi N, Kikuchi M, Kusaba K, Syono Y, Muto Y (1988) Jpn J App! Phys 27:L2048 Sato M, Hiraga K, Sumino K (1980) Jpn J App! os Mag A47:483 Hiraga K, Shindo D, Hirabayashi M (1981) J App! Crystallogr 14:185 Hiraga K, Shindo D, Hirabayashi M, Terasaki 0, Watanabe D (1980) Acta Crystallogr B36:2550 Terasaki 0, Watanabe D, Hiraga K, Shindo D, Hirabayashi M (1981) J App!
The way to check these points is explained below. To Check the Quality of High-Resolution Images. The condition of an electron microscope can be confirmed by examining the quality of a high-resolution image of an amorphous film. The stability (particularly the alternating current component) of the accelerating voltage and the objective lens current can be assessed from the fineness and sharpness of the image contrast. This stability can also be measured with an electrical instrument, or quantitatively evaluated from a digital or optical diffractogram of an observed high-resolution image of an amorphous film (Fig.