By Wayne M. Ahr
* An available source, masking the basics of carbonate reservoir engineering* contains discussions on how, the place and why carbonate are shaped, plus stories of simple sedimentological and stratigraphic ideas to give an explanation for carbonate platform features and stratigraphic relationships* bargains a brand new, genetic class of carbonate porosity that's specially worthwhile in predicting spatial distribution of pore networks.* incorporates a resolution handbook
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Extra resources for Geology of Carbonate Reservoirs: The Identification, Description and Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks
Grain orientation and alignment produced by currents at time of deposition. The larger grains at the top of the ﬁgure are imbricated and those at the bottom of the ﬁgure are simply oriented with long axes parallel to the direction of ﬂow. Permeability is highest in the direction of grain alignment. (b) Diagenetic fabric. Complete replacement of limestone by dolomite creates a diagenetic fabric totally unrelated to depositional rock properties. In this case the dolomite rhombohedra occur in an “open” fabric with a great amount of intercrystalline porosity.
The pores within sponge, coral, bryozoan, stromatoporoid, or rudist skeletons, for example, are intraparticle pores, although the individual skeletons are part of larger reef structures. All three fabric categories are closely related to reservoir properties because fabric inﬂuences pore to pore throat geometry and may inﬂuence directional permeability. 3c). 3 CARBONATE RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES Composition Composition of carbonate rocks usually refers to constituent grain type rather than mineral content, because carbonates may be monomineralic and the mineral content of polymineralic carbonates is not generally indicative of depositional environment.
These deﬁnitive rock properties are discussed in more detail in the following sections. 1 Texture There are many textural terms in the literature on sedimentary rocks, but most geologists today describe grain sizes according to the Wentworth (1922) scale in millimeters, or in “phi units,” which are logarithmic transformations to the base 2 of the size (in millimeters). It is rarely possible to disaggregate lithiﬁed limestones into component grains; consequently, direct size measurements by sieve, pipette, or hydrometer are limited to unconsolidated sediments.