Geography, History and Social Sciences (GeoJournal Library) by Georges B. Benko, Ulf Strohmayer

By Georges B. Benko, Ulf Strohmayer

The complicated family among territory and the social sciences are defined through investigators from varied disciplines: geography, economic climate, sociology and background between them. the present ferment within the social sciences has assigned an more and more vital function to the inspiration of area. In Geography, heritage and Social Sciences, confirmed, across the world revered authors reveal the renewed vigor of the idea that of house in the social sciences often, and in the ancient social sciences particularly. Consciously situating human geography between those latter, the contributions recommend an built-in imaginative and prescient of societies, taken throughout the lenses of an interdisciplinary human technology. Geography and background, initially united within the pursuit of knowing the concrete varieties and advancements of societies, are once more introduced less than the unifying umbrella of a really spatialised human technological know-how. Human geography specifically, which has been announcing itself as a social technological know-how during the last twenty years, needs to be rejuvenated, not just by means of hearing the entire messages which can stimulate its theoretical building, but in addition via developing shut kin with all discourses which communicate of a society as a complete, made from otherwise conditioned historic components.

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The dialogue was a widely used form for setting out theological and philosophical ideas. Alcuin, following earlier medieval didactic traditions, used a pupil–teacher dialogue for his treatises on the arts of the trivium. Anselm liked to write in a dialogue form heavily influenced by Augustine’s early philosophical dialogues. Eriugena cast his vast Periphyseon (all five books of it) in the form of a dialogue between a teacher and pupil, but he used this format creatively – sometimes allowing the pupil to misunderstand or argue badly, and to be corrected by the teacher, sometimes, by contrast, putting into the pupil’s mouth bold ideas that he perhaps wanted to suggest only tentatively.

Until the late tenth century, was based mainly on the accounts of logic in the encyclopedias of Cassiodorus, Isidore of Seville and Martianus Capella, together with Apuleius’s Periermenias (an account of basic Aristotelian syllogistic) and the Ten Categories, a paraphrase-commentary of Aristotle’s Categories. The last of these was written in the circle of Themistius, but attributed in the Middle Ages to Augustine. This misattribution points to one of the reasons why logic had such a large place in early medieval education: it was seen as indispensable in theological discussion, both because it provided a way of posing fundamental questions about God and his relation to his creation, and because it furnished a formidable argumentative weapon in controversy.

In Berengar’s view, accidents are individuated by the substances in which they inhere, so that the individual accidental properties of the bread and wine could not inhere in some other substance. 13 Philosophy and systematic theology From the late eleventh century onwards, thinkers tried to systematize the teaching of Christian doctrine. One method looked to scriptural exegesis and treatises of canon law and sought to draw together the material they provided so as to offer a coherent, orderly whole, in which points of contention – often suggested originally by apparently contradictory texts from the Bible or the Church Fathers – could be not merely presented, but argued through and resolved.

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