By Matti Leppäranta
A huge variety of boreal lakes are ice-covered in iciness. notwithstanding, examine and literature of those lakes issues through a ways basically the open water season. particularly, no textbook on physics of ice-covered lakes exists, and now it might be a formal time to arrange such.
Winter limnology has develop into an expanding lively box of study lately. a sequence of wintry weather limnology symposia used to be begun in 2008 in Finland with approximately a hundred individuals. the second one symposium used to be held in Berlin in 2010 and the 3rd one is coming in 2012 in Norway. wintry weather limnologists want strongly a textbook on lake ice physics because the ice acts as their boundary condition.
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6 °C, which is not far from the present global average (about 15 °C). It is clear that the result is sensitive to the atmospheric emissivity and albedo. 7. In the tropical zone, in the coldest month Ta = 300 K. 1 km. For the scaling magnitude, we can take Qs ∝ cos Z0 × tday, where Z0 is the solar zenith angle at noon and tday is the length of the day. In the northern hemisphere midwinter, we have approximately Qs ¼ Qs0 Â cosð/ À dÞ; / À d 90 , where Qs0 is the scale of radiation in the tropics, ϕ is latitude, and δ * –15° is declination.
Menzies 1995). , Siegert et al. 2001); and supraglacial lakes form in blue ice regions in the surface layer in summer (Winther et al. 1996; Bajracharya and Mool 2009; Leppäranta et al. 2013). Epiglacial lakes are as normal cold region lakes with a soil or rock bottom, fed mainly by glacial melt water inflow. They are an important habitat of life in the polar world. Normally these lakes have seasonal ice cover but blocks of glacial ice may be present. Subglacial lakes are one of the most exciting geographical ﬁndings of the 20th century.
Often this date refers to the freeze-over of the whole lake, but in larger lakes observations do not necessarily cover the whole water body. The freeze-up date, also called ice-on date, is used for the ﬁrst day of complete coverage of ice in a given season. The ice break-up date, also called ice-off date, in turn, is the last ice day in a given winter season. The length of ice season is the time between the freezing and breakup dates, while the number of ice days is the number of days when ice actually exists.