Females Are Mosaics: X Inactivation and Sex Differences in by Barbara Migeon

By Barbara Migeon

Ladies should be defined as genetic mosaics simply because they've got fantastically sorts of cells all through their our bodies. not like men, who've one X chromosome, women have X chromosomes in each telephone. a lot has been written concerning the Y chromosome and its position in inducing maleness. this can be the single booklet concerning the X chromosome as a key to lady improvement and the function of X-related components within the etiology of intercourse variations in human ailment. This new version displays learn advances from the six years because the extensively praised first variation. New advances comprise wisdom of species changes in mammalian X inactivation methods and silencing of the inactive X chromosome.

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The recognized exceptions to Ohno’s law (reviewed in Graves [22]) reflect these additions to the X chromosomes after the divergence of marsupials from eutherians, by evolutionary translocations of autosomal segments to the X chromosome [24]. 4. Mammals have been divided into the two subclasses: (1) Theria, the metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian lineages, and (2) Prototheria, represented only by the egg-laying monotremes. Monotremes are the earliest offshoot of the mammalian lineage, having reptilian as well as mammalian features.

One might ask why a system that causes loss of males has been tolerated through evolution. We must conclude that the advantages of new combinations of genes afforded by sexual reproduction for our species far outweigh the disadvantage of the reduced viability in individual males. 4. By convention, the chromosome content of a cell is represented by a number giving the total number of chromosomes in each cell followed by the sex chromosomes present. Thus, 46,XY is the karyotype for a normal male, and 46,XX for a normal female; 45,X is a girl with Turner syndrome, and 47,XXY is a boy with Klinefelter syndrome.

Reproduction can be as simple as cleaving one cell into two; in this case, the daughter cells produced are exact copies of the cell from which they were derived. However, reproduction of most organisms involves contributions from two nonidentical gametes, the egg and sperm—each supplies different genetic attributes to the progeny of their mating. Sexual reproduction of this kind provides infinite numbers of new combinations of the parental genes. Some of these may specify novel traits that enable the offspring to better adapt to a changing ecological niche than could their parents.

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