Evolution of Biological Diversity by Carlos Mattox

By Carlos Mattox

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The most famous experiments on the peppered moth were carried out by Bernard Kettlewell under the supervision of E. B. Ford, who helped him gain a grant from the Nuffield Foundation to perform the experiments. In one of Kettlewell's experiments, moths were released into a large (18 m by 6 m) aviary, where they were fed on by Great Tits (Parus major). In 1953, Kettlewell experimented at Cadbury Nature Reserve in Birmingham, England, marking, releasing and recapturing marked moths. He found that in this polluted woodland typica morphs were preferentially preyed.

Equus) evolved into the New World stilt-legged horse (NWSLH). 5 million years ago. "Hippidion" is thus unrelated to the morphologically similar Pliohippus, which presumably went extinct during the Miocene. Both the NWSLH and "Hippidium" show adaptations to dry, barren ground, whereas the shortened legs of "Hippidion" may have been a response to sloped terrain. In contrast, the geographic origin of the closely related modern E. ferus is not resolved. However, genetic results on extant and fossil material of Pleistocene age indicate two clades, potentially subspecies, one of which had a holarctic distribution spanning from Europe through Asia and across North America and would become the founding stock of the modern domesticated horse.

Its feet were padded, much like a dog's, but with the small hooves on each toe in place of claws. For a span of about 20 million years, the Hyracotherium thrived with few significant evolutionary changes. The most significant change was in the teeth, which began to adapt to the changing diet of Hyracotheria, as these early Equidae shifted from a mixed diet of fruits and foliage to one focused increasingly on browsing foods. During the Eocene, a Hyracotherium species (most likely Hyracotherium vassacciense) branched out into various new types of Equidae.

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