Encyclopedia of public international law 4: Use of Force, by Rudolf Bernhardt

By Rudolf Bernhardt

Encyclopedia of Public foreign legislations, four: Use of strength, battle, and Neutrality Peace Treaties (N-Z) specializes in adversarial inter-State family and linked questions, in addition to using strength, battle, neutrality, and peace treaties.

The book first elaborates on warships, wars of nationwide liberation, battle fabrics, legislation of battle, conflict correspondent, warfare and setting, Versailles Peace Treaty (1919), use of strength, United international locations peacekeeping procedure, United countries forces, and unfriendly act. The textual content then ponders on buying and selling with the enemy, suspension of hostilities, quit, submarine conflict, sequestration, self-preservation, self-defense, sea war, safeguard zones, safe-conduct and secure passage, resistance hobbies, requisitions, and reparations after global struggle II. The publication examines reduction activities, reputation of insurgency and belligerency, prisoners of battle, danger to peace, peace treaties, capability to defend peace, pacifism, profession after armistice, nuclear exams, non-aggression pacts, and neutrality in air war, land battle, and sea struggle.

The textual content is an important resource of knowledge for researchers attracted to using strength, battle, and neutrality peace treaties.

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Additional info for Encyclopedia of public international law 4: Use of Force, War and Neutrality, Peace Treaties (N-Z): Instalment 4

Example text

According to Art. 4(B) (2) of Geneva Convention III of 1949 relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (- Geneva Red Cross Conventions and Protocols), the provisions of this Convention are a minimum standard for internment if more favourable treatment is not granted. A neutral State is also under a duty to prevent on its territory the formation of armed forces or the setting up of enlistment bureaus for the 18 NEUTRALITY IN LAND WARFARE benefit of belligerents, irrespective of the - nationality of the persons involved.

Children under the age of 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their parents through the war may, according to Geneva Convention IV (Art. 24), be entrusted to a neutral for the duration of the conflict. - Asylum may be granted to certain persons, for instance escaped prisoners of war or - deserters. These persons do not, however, have an individual claim, under international law, against the neutral State to be admitted to its territory. (d) Economic rules The relevant rules of Hague Convention V of 1907 were based on two principles which directly flowed from the concept of economic liberalism reigning at the time (- Neutral Trading).

Consequently, the two basic principles underlying the laws of neutrality are non-participation in war and impartiality vis-a-vis the opposing belligerents. The laws of neutrality are of particular im- Whereas in - land warfare, as well as - air warfare, the passage of armed units or aircraft through neutral territory is prohibited (- Neutrality in Land Warfare; - Neutrality in Air Warfare), different and special rules apply at sea under Hague Convention XIII of 1907 concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War (- Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907).

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