By Hiltmar Schubert, Andrey Kuznetsov
The publication comprises lectures of a world NATO-Russian complicated Workshop concerning the detection of liquid explosives and flammable brokers. The ARW used to be one among a sequence of workshops sooner than, facing the detection of explosives and initiated through terrorist activities utilizing liquid explosives. the purpose of the workshop used to be to provide and to debate appropriate equipment concerning the feasibility and cognizance of the detection of liquid explosive fees and flammable brokers.
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Additional resources for Detection of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics)
Liquids also exhibit the property of low velocity detonation (LVD). A LVD is a shock wave propagating through a liquid explosive at constant speed just above speed of sound in the liquid. The typically LVD is about 2,000 m/s. High-velocity detonation (HVD) (CJ detonation) occurs at rates between 6,000–8,000 m/s. Both LVD and HVD can occur simultaneous, depending on confinement, charge diameter, and initiation conditions. An LVD can become HVD but not vise versa. A stable LVD can form if the speed of sound in the walls of the container is greater than LVD so that the shock-front can propagate through the walls producing zones of cavitation ahead of the LVD.
Detonation is attenuated transitting from narrow to large confinement . In heterogeneous solids, two mechanisms support wave propagation – hot spots and homogeneous burn. e. liquids; therefore, critical diameter is larger for liquids than solids . Due to their homogeneity, detonation of liquids more closely resembles the detonation of gases rather than solids. C. Oxley the detonation front and reflecting off the side confinement. These are lateral or transfer compression waves, not release waves, because side walls are stiffer than shock impedance of detonation.
IEEE Trans. On Nucl. , Vol. 53 N°3 (2006) 1737 M. , Nucl. Instr. Meth. B261 (2007) 391 P. , Porc. Of NEMEA-3, October 2006. European Commission report EUR 22794 EN, Editor: A. Plompen G. , J. : Conf. Ser. 41 (2006) 375 J. C. , Nucl. Instr. Meth. B561 (2006) 470 R. J. , Nucl. Instr. Meth. B. , Appl. Radiat. Isot. D. I. N. A. E. V. , for remote detection of wide range of explosives and flammable agents. For practical realization of NTNT the time resolution of pulses from gamma-detectors with respect to the associated pulses from alpha-detector should be close to 1 ns.