By David Smith (auth.)
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Extra resources for Criminology for Social Work
1989; Stewart and Stewart, 1993), and dramatically reduced the availability of the supported lodgings on which the service used to rely for the accommodation of its clients (Paylor, 1992). At the same time, financial pressures on local authorities led to widespread cuts in youth service provision; the financial incentives which enabled the employment of young people on community programmes, some with a direct focus on crime problems, were removed, leading to the virtual collapse of such programmes; schools which had 'opted-out' of local authority control lacked any disincentive to exclude or expel awkward students, and indeed (in view of the publication of league tables) might have a positive incentive to do so; and the Urban Aid budget, which had made possible the provision of a range of services which would not otherwise have existed in deprived city areas, was drastically cut (in October 1992).
This book tries to answer this question while avoiding the assumption that criminology and social work are in some way mutually opposed or incompatible. In this book, therefore, 'social work' includes probation unless the context makes clear that a distinction is being drawn. The book's attempt to show how criminology can be useful does not mean that it will be primarily about causes and cures - criminology has become too wise, or at least too modest, to go on talking in such terms but it does mean that it will treat seriously questions about why we have the patterns of crime we do (for example, why crime arid victimisation rates are higher in urban than rural areas) and what might be an appropriate policy and practice response.
Box thus shares some assumptions of control theory while showing how it might be extended to account more adequately for the overrepresentation of certain groups among those officially labelled as offenders. He would also share the uneasiness expressed by many about the social consequences of the implementation of control theory's policy Using Traditional Criminology 41 implications, if these were to take the form of 'situational', opportunityreduction measures such as increased security and surveillance.