Combinatorial Identities for Stirling Numbers: The by Jocelyn Quaintance, Henry W. Gould

By Jocelyn Quaintance, Henry W. Gould

This booklet is a distinct paintings which supplies an in-depth exploration into the mathematical services, philosophy, and data of H W Gould. it truly is written in a mode that's available to the reader with easy mathematical wisdom, and but comprises fabric that might be of curiosity to the professional in enumerative combinatorics. This publication starts off with exposition at the combinatorial and algebraic ideas that Professor Gould makes use of for proving binomial identities. those thoughts are then utilized to enhance formulation which relate Stirling numbers of the second one style to Stirling numbers of the 1st type. Professor Gould's recommendations additionally offer connections among either different types of Stirling numbers and Bernoulli numbers. Professor Gould believes his examine good fortune comes from his instinct on easy methods to realize combinatorial identities.This ebook will attract a large viewers and should be used both as lecture notes for a starting graduate point combinatorics classification, or as a study complement for the expert in enumerative combinatorics.

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These two cases, while not necessary, are not difficult to verify. Suppose x = −1. 26) becomes n (−1)j j=0 −1 j 2n + 1 n−j n 2n+1 j=0 j n 2n + 1 n−j = j=0 n = j=0 2n + 1 . j 2n If we can show = 2 , we will be done. To do so, we will make use of the following application of the standard interchange formula. Assume f (x) is a complex valued function defined for all nonnegative integers. For n ≥ 2, we have n n f (k) = k=1 f (n − k + 1) = k=1 1 2 n [f (k) + f (n − k + 1)] k=1 ⌊n 2⌋ = [f (k) + f (n − k + 1)] + k=1 1 − (−1)n f 2 n+1 2 .

6) implies that ⌊n 2⌋ k=0 n 2k ⌊ n−1 2 ⌋ n 2k + 1 = k=0 n 2n 2k − 1 = k=0 = 2n−1 , n ≥ 1. 8) is the total number of even subsets while the right is total number of odd subsets. 8) becomes n k=0 2n 2k n = k=0 2n 2k + 1 = 22n−1 , n ≥ 1. 9) Pascal’s identity implies 2n + 1 2n 2n = + . 9) to obtain n k=0 2n + 1 2k + 1 n = k=0 2n + 2k + 1 n 2n 2k k=0 n =2 k=0 2n 2k = 22n . 11) holds for n ≥ 0. 8) implies that n n n 2n 2n 2n + 1 22n = + = . 12) are basic applications of the binomial theorem. 2), we demonstrate just one more which is related to Melzak’s theorem.

6) page 14 September 15, 2015 12:0 ws-book9x6 Combinatorial Identities for Stirling Nu... master 15 The Binomial Theorem while Identity 7 implies that n k 0= (−1) k=0 ⌊n 2⌋ n k = k=0 n − 2k ⌊ n−1 2 ⌋ n , 2k + 1 k=0 ⌊n n 2⌋ k=0 2k n ≥ 1. 7) we deduce that = k=02 2k+1 whenever n ≥ 1. 6) implies that ⌊n 2⌋ k=0 n 2k ⌊ n−1 2 ⌋ n 2k + 1 = k=0 n 2n 2k − 1 = k=0 = 2n−1 , n ≥ 1. 8) is the total number of even subsets while the right is total number of odd subsets. 8) becomes n k=0 2n 2k n = k=0 2n 2k + 1 = 22n−1 , n ≥ 1.

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