Cleavage: technology, controversy, and the ironies of the by Professor Nora Jacobson

By Professor Nora Jacobson

Women's breasts were idealized as symbols of femininity and motherhood. they've got held nice social and mental value as items drawing intrusive gazes, and as pictures of self esteem to be measured opposed to an idealized shape. it's no ask yourself, then, undefined expertise emerged to change and "enhance" their visual appeal. Nora Jacobson lines the hundred-year background of 1 such know-how: breast implants.

Organized either chronologically and thematically, this booklet examines the background of breast implant know-how from 1895 to 1990, together with the controversies that erupted within the early Nineties over the defense of the units and the nutrition and Drug Administration's rules in their use. Jacobson examines such themes as politics and bias in clinical perform and the position of bureaucracies, agencies, and governments in setting up coverage and regulating implant technology.

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Additional resources for Cleavage: technology, controversy, and the ironies of the man-made breast

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The FDA had demonstrated a preference for scientific data as the standard for its decisions. It was clear, however, that the scientific validity of these evidences would be contested. Was one person's story of suffering data or anecdote? Could the manufacturers' claims for their proprietary data be trusted, or was science necessarily something public? What value did history have in making determinations of risk and benefit? The interests of the players involved in these questions were also revealed.

Witnesses at the hearing presented various types of evidencepersonal narrative, "solid science," history. The FDA had demonstrated a preference for scientific data as the standard for its decisions. It was clear, however, that the scientific validity of these evidences would be contested. Was one person's story of suffering data or anecdote? Could the manufacturers' claims for their proprietary data be trusted, or was science necessarily something public? What value did history have in making determinations of risk and benefit?

My aim was not to draw authoritative conclusions about the contested realities of implants, but to look at how those realities were constructed, by whom, and for what purposes. Both my approach and the topic were somewhat unorthodox for a student at a quantitatively oriented, very positivist school of public health. I spent a lot of time explaining what I was not doing. I was not doing epidemiology, designing a study to assess the truth of women's claims of harm. I was not doing psychological or behavioral research, seeking to find a model that could explain why women wanted implants.

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