By Teresa P. R. Caldeira
Teresa Caldeira's pioneering learn of worry, crime, and segregation in S?o Paulo poses crucial questions about citizenship and concrete switch in modern democratic societies. targeting S?o Paulo, and utilizing comparative info on la, she identifies new styles of segregation constructing in those towns and means that those styles are showing in lots of metropolises.
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Extra info for City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in São Paulo
In the mid-1980s, however, feeling that things were getting too difficult and violent, they moved back to their native Bahia. Since then, each of their seven children has returned to Sao Paulo in search of better opportunities. The brothers' description of the country's economic situation was bleak: "Nobody has money, employers are all ending in bankruptcy, they are firing employees; the Plano Collor screwed a lot of people," said the eldest brother. Although ~wo of them were still employed, they did not expect to keep their jobs for long.
Although many people like to think of Brazil as a "racial democracy," any reading of socioeconomic indicators shows a pervasive discrimination against the black population. 27 Moreover, Lopes (1993) shows that 68 percent of the urban households below the indigent line had either a black or a pardo head of household, while black or pardo households represented only 41 percent of all urban households. The other change in Brazilian society during the 1980s was political de~ocr~tization. The end of the 1970S and the early 1980s were marked by a slgmfIcant expansion of political citizenship and rights.
Disenchantment with leaders and their broken promises combines with frustrations about the country's progress and its threatened modernization. Although the belief In progress went virtually unchallenged until very recently, in the interviews people observed that progress is an illusion and not Crisis and Criminals The Talk of Crime a promise, that the country was never able to live up to expectations and never would be. 5 I cannot see how our country is going to unite with the rest of the world.