Città ribelli. I movimenti urbani dalla Comune di Parigi a by David Harvey, F. De Chiara

By David Harvey, F. De Chiara

Un secolo e mezzo prima che Occupy riempisse le strade e le piazze del mondo, l. a. città moderna period già fucina di idee rivoluzionarie, e fu dallo spazio urbano che soffiarono i primi venti del cambiamento sociale e politico. Da sempre le città sono teatri che mettono in scena il pensiero utopico, ma anche centri di accumulazione capitalistica, e quindi spazi di conflitto contro quei pochi che, controllando l’accesso alle risorse comuni, determinano l. a. qualità della vita di molti. L’urbanizzazione ha giocato un ruolo primario nell’assorbimento del surplus di capitale, alimentando processi di «distruzione creatrice» che hanno sottratto alle masse il diritto di costruire e ricostruire le proprie città. Questo conflitto latente è esploso periodicamente in grandi rivolte popolari, come nella Comune di Parigi del 1871, a seguito della riconfigurazione urbanistica voluta da Napoleone III e realizzata da Haussmann, quando i cittadini espropriati si sollevarono in step with imporre il governo rivoluzionario sulla capitale. O come nel 1968, con i grandi movimenti sociali urbani che agitarono Chicago e Berlino, Praga e Città del Messico, o ancora, nell’estate 2011, con i riots che hanno bruciato le periferie di Londra e con l’ondata di indignazione contro il potere finanziario che ha scosso the US ed Europa. «Città ribelli», unendo rigore scientifico e passione politica, ripercorre l. a. storia delle città come centri propulsori della lotta di classe e dei movimenti di riappropriazione dei diritti collettivi. Partendo dal saggio cruciale di Henri Lefebvre «Il diritto alla città», David Harvey esplora gli effetti delle politiche neoliberiste sulla vita urbana negli ultimi trent’anni; le modalità con cui los angeles schiavitù del debito immobiliare ha paralizzato il ceto medio, le classi povere e le minoranze; il progressivo restringimento dello spazio pubblico consistent with l. a. cittadinanza a vantaggio delle cattedrali del company. in step with approdare, infine, al quesito fondamentale: in che modo, in tempi di crisi, possiamo riorganizzare le città perché siano socialmente ed ecologicamente più giuste?

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Extra info for Città ribelli. I movimenti urbani dalla Comune di Parigi a Occupy Wall Street (2013)

Sample text

The sharp contrast between satisfactory social housing and the worst estates was a clear measure of how serious the problems were in these extreme areas. The criterion of inclusion in a publicly supported rescue programme may have biassed the findings in favour of government priorities. As the major funders of social housing, the governments' influence was disproportionate. But a compelling argument for the selection of these estates is that governments prioritised these marginal areas in a period of great funding difficulty, precisely because their problems had become inescapably serious.

In this sense, the problems of 'estates on the edge' and the 'underclass' are not separate from wider societal problems, only more concentrated and more defined because of being area-based. Sir Ralph Dahrendorf explains how the whole fabric of society may be undermined by the exclusion of some groups. Professing values like those of work and family means that one tolerates a not insignificant group which has no stake in accepted general values... and the values themselves begin to become much more tenuous and precarious than is sustainable for any length of time...

None of the Continental visits were made while the estates were in their most serious decline, whereas many British and Irish estates had been known and visited during their most difficult phases in the early 1980s. This was because the Continental exchanges and visits began after governments had recognised the problems and developed programmes to address them. The estates in the study were in various stages of decline and rescue over the eight-year period of study; their conditions evolved significantly over that period.

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