CIT Consciousness (Foundations of Philosophy in India) by Bina Gupta

By Bina Gupta

This quantity, part of the principles of Philosophy in India sequence, is an exam of the myriad conceptions of awareness in classical Indian philosophy.

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Ich makes possible all seeing or knowing. No physical light satisfies this requirement of independence. A flashlight can show a thing only to a conscious being; consciousness, however, shows things without presupposing any other thing. A lamp does not show a thing to itself, only to a consciousness. If consciousness is light, it must be such a light as shows a thing only to itself. This gives rise to a fresh difficulty. Consciousness by itself, it may be argued, cannot show anything. If there is complete darkness, consciousness cannot penetrate it, only physical light can.

It passes from the dream state to waking life and from waking life back to the dream state very much like a fish that swims from one bank of the river to another. When a person goes to sleep, he takes with him the impressions received during the waking state, pulls them apart, reconstructs them, and dreams by his own nature and own light. The sun illuminates objects in waking life. Since the sun does not shine inside us, but yet objects are revealed to the dreaming self, there must be another source of illumination.

BG 17, 9-10. 52. 3. 53. 3. D. Ranade, A Constructive Survey of the Upani~adic Philosophy (Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1968), p. 84. Henceforth this book will be cited as Ranade. 54. 2; Ranade, p. 85. 55. 2. 56. 1; Ranade, p. 85. 57. 19. 58. 19. 59. 3. 60. 61. 62. 63. 1. 9. 9-18. I shall discuss this concept in my chapter on Advaita Vedanta. 64. See SaqJkara's commentary on Gautjapiida's Kiirikii 12. 3 The Objectivist Theory of Nyaya -VaiSe~ika 1 In the first chapter of this book, I noted that all the empirical theories of consciousness, of which the Nyaya-Vai§e~ika and l1unarpsa2 are prime examples, might be regarded as objectivist theories.

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