Chloride Channels and Carriers in Nerve, Muscle, and Glial by Francisco J. Alvarez-Leefmans, Fernando Giraldez, John M.

By Francisco J. Alvarez-Leefmans, Fernando Giraldez, John M. Russell (auth.), Francisco J. Alvarez-Leefmans, John M. Russell (eds.)

This is a ebook approximately how Cl- crosses the cellphone membranes of nerve, muscle, and glial cells. no longer so very a long time in the past, a pamphlet instead of ebook may have resulted from such an activity! One may perhaps ask why Cl-, the main ample organic anion, attracted so little realization from investigators. the most cause used to be that the existing paradigm for mobile ion homeostasis within the Nineteen Fifties and Sixties assigned Cl- a ther­ modynamically passive and unspecialized position. This view used to be really renowned between muscle and neuroscience investigators. In trying to find purposes for this sort of destructive (no pun meant) point of view, it sort of feels to us that it stemmed from key experimental observations. First, paintings on frog skeletal muscle confirmed that Cl- used to be passively disbursed among the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid. moment, paintings on Cl- shipping in purple blood cells proven that the Cl- transmembrane distribution was once thermodynamically passive and, furthermore, confirmed that Cl- crossed the mem­ brane tremendous swiftly. This latter discovering [for many years interpreted as being the results of a excessive passive chloride electric permeability(? CI)] made it really most likely that Cl- might stay at thermodynamic equilibrium. those observations have been gener­ alized and almost all cells have been notion to have a truly excessive P Cl and a ther­ modynamically passive Cl- transmembrane distribution. those recommendations can nonetheless be present in a few body structure and neuroscience textbooks.

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All this suggests that in these neurons ECJ is more negative than Em. , ::5 10 mM), interference from normally occurring intracellular anions on Cl- -LIX microelectrode responses might be thought to be significant. The most important of these intracellular interfering anions is HCO]. Therefore, appropriate experiments and corrections have to be made to evaluate the degree of this interference. There are at least two possible ways of getting around this problem. First, it is possible in principle to lower the intracellular HCO] concentration, [HCO] ]i, by removing extracellular HCO) and C0 2 , and using, for example, HEPES-buffered solutions equilibrated with 100% 0 2 .

However, when external CI- is experimentally removed, a condition under which cells are likely to be depleted of Cl-, the intracellular potential of the Cl- -selective microelectrode should reflect the contribution of intracellular interfering anions. Experimental evidence obtained from various types of cells shows that in Cl- -free media, the apparent ab read in the final steady state by the microelectrode, (ab) 0 c 1, never reaches zero. 8 mM and as high as more than 10 mM have been measured (see Table 2).

For further details, see Ammann (1986). 3d. Mixed Solutions at Constant Ionic Strength: The Method of Reciprccal Dilutions. Many of the published selectivity values for liquid ion-exchanger microelectrodes have been evaluated by this method. The procedure has been described in detail by Brown et al. ( 1970) and Saunders and Brown ( 1977). These authors applied the method to estimate the selectivity coefficients for CORNING 477315 CI- liquid exchanger microelectrodes. , [CI-] + [A -1 = 100 mM. A simple way of applying this method was published by Walker (1971), to evaluate also the selectivity coefficients of CORNING 4 77315 CI- liquid exchanger microelectrodes.

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