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This, the second one quantity of Charged Particle Traps, is dedicated to functions, complementing the 1st volume’s entire therapy of the speculation and perform of charged particle traps, their many variations and refinements. lately, functions of a ways attaining value have emerged starting from the ultra-precise mass determinations of user-friendly debris and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, a few concerning "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such excessive answer that optical frequency criteria are discovered by way of locking lasers to them. additional the capability program of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, in line with the intense quantum country coherence made attainable by way of the particle isolation. attention is given to the Paul and Penning traps as strength quantum details processors.
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Extra info for Charged particle traps II: Applications
But this imposes a severe limit on the tolerable spread in the energy of the ion beam transmitted through the spectrometer, and on the density of ions that can be trapped. It has been demonstrated  that by interposing compensating electrodes between the end plates and the axial plates the cyclotron frequency sensitivity to the trapping potential is greatly reduced. 25 cm. 0 T superconducting magnet.
However, since the ﬁeld is not a pure quadrupole, the ion frequencies are dependent on the amplitude and the resonance condition is not maintained as the ion gains energy. As the ion frequencies deviate from the resonance condition this leads to periodic shift in relative phase similar to beats whose amplitude will determine whether the ion will be lost. Douglas and coworkers at the University of British Columbia have deliberately introduced higher order multipoles into the trapping potential by changing the geometry of the trap electrodes and have shown that the mass resolution can be signiﬁcantly increased [73–75].
Paul and coworkers developed what is now called the Paul trap for three-dimensional conﬁnement of charged particles . In parallel, the Penning trap for conﬁnement of charged particles by static electric and magnetic ﬁeld was developed [3, 56] based on early ideas by Penning  and Pierce . The requirements of high-mass resolution and accuracy clearly depend on the problem to be investigated: While for identiﬁcation of molecules in chemistry a mass resolution of 104 –105 is suﬃcient, the determination of fundamental constants at the present state-of-the-art requires a resolving power exceeding 1010 .