By Panos Sophoulis
This cutting edge survey of Byzantium's family members with pre-Christian Bulgaria within the overdue 8th and early 9th century deals a wholly new framework for figuring out the advancements that formed probably the most turbulent classes within the background of the early Medieval Balkans. in contrast to prior reports, it integrates the surviving literary resources with the ever-growing archaeological list to build a entire narrative account of the Byzantine-Bulgar clash for political mastery within the area. furthermore, the research of the altering socio-political buildings of Bulgaria presents a foundation for realizing its transformation from a free tribal confederation right into a strong monarchy. whereas this can be basically a local learn, targeting the territories and peoples managed via the 2 competing powers, it's also of curiosity to scholars of the Frankish, Arab and steppe-nomad worlds, because the relatives among Byzantium and Bulgaria are placed right into a wider foreign context.
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Additional resources for Byzantium and Bulgaria, 775-831 (East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450-1450)
8). The last notice concerns the resettlement of Thrace and Macedonia, the first of the so-called “ten vexations of Nikephoros”, comparable to the plagues of Egypt. 10–23). The chronicler names one of his authorities. This is an official communiqué (sacra) announcing the capture of a Bulgar aule (lit. 66 The communiqué evidently noted the date of Nikephoros’ departure from the imperial capital (Maundy Tuesday, 3 April), but whether it also reported that he had celebrated Easter at the encampment, as the chronicler claims it did, is unknown.
To prove its historicity, the imperial authorities needed an ancient and reputable document that asserted that there were martyrdoms, and it is 103 Wortley 1980, 543, 545; Kazhdan 1999, 169–181, suggested a comparison of the Chronicle of 811 with the anonymous Martyrion of the Twenty Sabaites, written ca. 800. In reality, the similarities between the two texts are superficial; see Stephenson 2006, 103. 104 Synaxarion CP, 414–416 (Jan. 22); Menologion Basilii, 276D–277A; see also Theod. , Parva Catechesis, 149; Tomadakes, Akolouthia, 333–351; Follieri and Dujčev, Acolutia, 71–106.
19–20; Theodosios. 15–16. 21–22. 64 For the election of Nikephoros, see Alexander 1958, 65–71. 65 Mango and Scott 1997, 663 n. 1, believe that the term paroikos is used here in a biblical sense, meaning “foreigner”. 18 chapter one labour to rebuild it, unsuccessfully contrives to persuade them to volunteer. 8). The last notice concerns the resettlement of Thrace and Macedonia, the first of the so-called “ten vexations of Nikephoros”, comparable to the plagues of Egypt. 10–23). The chronicler names one of his authorities.