By A. Robertson
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193-236. 38. Donovan Pratt , in Intelligence Requirements[or the 1980's: Counterintelligence, op. , pp. 236-43 and P. L. Thyraud de Vosjoli in Intelligence Requirements [or the 1980's: Covert Action, op. , p. 211. Illustrations of the continuing eontroversy surrounding the role of the symbiotie elements can be found in the writing of New York Times intelligence reporter Philip Taubman. See, for example, his 'Intra-Agency Rifts Laid to Niearaguan Operation', New York Times, 5 August 1983. 39. See for example Morton Halperin, J.
2. : Archon Books, 1965). Kent, however, defined intelligence as primarily analysis, and to a lesser extent colIection. 3. The outstanding exception among the scholars who have sought to remedy this defieiency is Adda B. Bozeman. See The Future of Law in a Multicultural World (Princeton University Press, 1971); Politics and Culture in International History (Princeton University Press, 1960); Conflict in Africa (Princeton University Press, 1976). C. : National Strategy Information Center, 1981).
In an ideal environment, the CA process first entails political authorization. The highest levels of government may initiate or request the action. Conversely, the bureaucracy itself may conceive the plan and request approval. In either event, endorsement at the top is essential if the action envisioned is to be combined with the activities ofthe more overt elements with the government. Next, a detailed plan or proposal will be developed by senior managers of the bureaucracy who specialize in these activities.