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Extra info for Beam-Hole Flux Monitors [declassified]
R is the radius of the drop base; θ is the contact angle; (1) liquid drop, (2) solid substrate with a small oriﬁce in the center, (3) liquid source (syringe). angle. Static hysteresis of contact angle results in an inﬁnite number of equilibrium contact angles of the drop on the solid surface, not the unique contact angle, θe, but the whole range of contact angles, θr < θe < θa, where θr and θa are the corresponding static receding and advancing contact angles. 14). Let us assume that, in some way, an initial contact angle of the droplet was equal to the equilibrium one.
That is, the consideration that follows is based on the consideration of the disjoining pressure. Using the previous deﬁnition, we can rewrite the excess free energy fD (h) as: ∞ f D (h) = ∫ Π(h)dh . 3 determines the thickness of the equilibrium liquid ﬁlm, he, via disjoining pressure isotherm. 4 gives the well-known stability condition of ﬂat equilibrium liquid ﬁlms . 1) are stable. Hence, only those α- and β-ﬁlms can exist as ﬂat ﬁlms. 1) are characteristic shapes in the case of water and aqueous solutions.
During these hours, evaporation of the liquid from the droplet cannot be ignored, and we go back to the problem of volatibility. Let us assume, however, that the equilibrium ﬁlm, after all, forms in front of the liquid droplet, and we have waited enough for the equilibrium. However, now we have again the following three interfacial tensions: γ, γsl , and γvh , which are liquid–vapor interfacial tension, solid–liquid interfacial tension and solid substrate, covered with the liquid ﬁlm of thickness h–vapor interfacial tensions.