Applications of X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geosciences by F. Mees, R. Swennen, M. Van Geet, P. Jacobs

By F. Mees, R. Swennen, M. Van Geet, P. Jacobs

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a method that enables non-destructive imaging and quantification of inner good points of gadgets. It was once initially constructed as a scientific imaging process, however it is now additionally turning into familiar for the examine of fabrics in engineering and the geosciences. X-ray CT finds variations in density and atomic composition and will for that reason be used for the examine of porosity, the relative distribution of contrasting reliable stages and the penetration of injected recommendations. As a non-destructive procedure, it really is preferrred for tracking of methods, reminiscent of the stream of ideas and the behaviour of fabrics lower than compression. simply because huge numbers of parallel two-dimensional cross-sections may be received, third-dimensional representations of chosen positive aspects should be created. during this e-book, numerous purposes of X-ray CT within the geosciences are illustrated by way of papers masking quite a lot of disciplines, together with petrology, soil technology, petroleum geology, geomechanics and sedimentology. additionally to be had: Mapping harmful Terrain utilizing distant Sensing - specific e-book no 283 - ISBN 1862392293 Geoinformatics: facts to wisdom - GSA USPE397 - ISBN 9780813723976 The Geological Society of LondonFounded in 1807, the Geological Society of London is the oldest geological society on this planet, and one of many biggest publishers within the Earth sciences.The Society publishes a variety of top quality peer-reviewed titles for teachers and pros operating within the geosciences, and enjoys an enviable overseas recognition for the standard of its work.The many parts within which we post in include:-Petroleum geology-Tectonics, structural geology and geodynamics-Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology-Volcanology, magmatic reports and geochemistry-Remote sensing-History of geology-Regional geology publications

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Dry image (left), water-saturated image (middle) and porosity image (right). 5cm. 28 S. AKIN & A. R. KOVSCEK Such an instrument might be useful for examining some of the relatively large features of the microstructure of a porous medium, a detailed examination of porosity and analysis of static fluid distribution within porous media. Scan times are relatively long (20 min), making frontal tracking difficult. Perhaps the most important factor in terms of image quality is the geometry of the experimental set-up.

Types of error Measurements with X-ray CT are subject to a variety of errors and image artefacts including beam hardening, star-shaped or so-called X-artefacts, positioning errors, and machine errors. These are discussed briefly (see also Van Geet et al. 2001). The majority of CT scanners were developed for medical purposes and were originally intended for qualitative imaging and not for quantitative analysis. Because the X-ray source delivers a spectrum of X-ray energies (polychromatic) rather than monochromatic energy, the lower energy, or soft, portions of the X-ray spectrum are absorbed preferentially at the air/ sample interface, as well as in the sample itself.

WEVERS, M. 2001. Towards 3-D petrography: application of microfocus computer tomography in geological science. Computers & Geosciences, 27, 1091-1099. D. 1982. Fundamentals of Fractured Reservoir Engineering. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. J. L. 1987. Tomographic imaging of three-phase flow experiments. Review of Scientific Instruments, 58, 96-107. J. P. 1988. User Guide for Computer Tomography Color Graphic SystemCATPIX. , Houston, Texas. P. M. 1994. On some remarkable observations of laboratory dispersion using computed tomography [CT].

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