An APL Compiler by Timothy Budd

By Timothy Budd

Presents the result of an research into the problems raised by way of the advance of a compiler for APL, a really excessive point laptop programming language. APL offers a couple of novel difficulties for a compiler author: vulnerable variable typing, run time adjustments in variable form, and a number of primitive operations. during the integration of a number of lately built compiler building strategies, resembling facts movement research, and a singular and house effective call for pushed or lazy evaluate method of code iteration, the writer has been capable of produce a real compiler for the language whereas nonetheless conserving the felxibility and straightforwardness which are the hallmarks of APL.

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An earlier pass identifies situations in which the composition of time inefficient functions can potentially cause problems. If it finds such a situation, it inserts into the parse tree new nodes· to assign the inner expressions to temporary variables, and the higher functions read from these variables. Thus, it is as if code for an expression such as ... +\ +\ A were written as +-+\ A ... +\ temp temp Other functions causing similar problems are outer product and the left argument to dyadic rotation.

22 An APL Compiler functions, and directed arcs correspond to potential function calls. A function call is characterized as a pair of "branches," one transferring control to the called function, the second returning control to the calling function. An arbitrary linear ordering can be imposed, or some analysis performed, to produce an ordering that reduces the number of "backward" branches. Once again, the two-level scoping system of the APL compiler simplifies the task of dataflow analysis. Since local variables are not a concern at this point, all identifiers are global and of the same scoping level.

For example, we can then determine that G in line 6 is a scalar integer. Similarly, we can finally determine something about the function linear, namely, that in line 18 it produces an integer vector. 13). With the addition of interprocedural analysis, some attribute can be discovered for almost 90% of all nodes in the 2. 14). 5. The Size of the Generated Programs It is interesting to compare the size of the C programs generated by the APL compiler under various conditions. 15 shows this information.

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