By Wynell Graves
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Direct cylinder injection raises the already high octane rating of ethanol up to an effective 130. The calculated over-all reduction of gasoline use and CO2 emission is 30%. The consumer cost payback time shows a 4:1 improvement over turbo-diesel and a 5:1 improvement over hybrid. In addition, the problems of water absorption into pre-mixed gasoline (causing phase separation), supply issues of multiple mix ratios and cold-weather starting are avoided. Ethanol's higher octane rating allows an increase of an engine's compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency.
The share of butanol can be 60% greater than the equivalent ethanol share, which gives a range from 8% to 16%. "Equivalent" in this case refers only to the vehicle's ability to adjust to the fuel. Other properties such as energy density, viscosity and heat of vaporisation will vary and may further limit the percentage of butanol that can be blended with gasoline. Consumer acceptance may be limited due to the offensive smell of butanol. Plans are underway to market a fuel that is 85% Ethanol and 15% Butanol (E85B), so existing E85 internal combustion engines can run on a 100% renewable fuel that could be made without using any fossile fuels.
The petroleum industry in Japan is advancing the research and development of a fuel alcohol that differs from GAIAX and is original now. However, the above-mentioned law used to exclude GAIAX becomes a trouble on the market of their fuel alcohol. Moreover, the prospect of marketing doesn't stand because disgust to "High density alcoholic fuel" of the consumer in Japan strongly remains by a longtime campaign, too at all. Chapter- 4 Butanol Fuel Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.