Agrometeorology by Professor Dr. J. Seemann, Professor Dr. Y. I. Chirkov,

By Professor Dr. J. Seemann, Professor Dr. Y. I. Chirkov, Professor Dr. J. Lomas, Dr. B. Primault (auth.)

Agrometeorology is a relatively younger technology. The beginnings of agrometeorological paintings got here within the 20's of this century, while agrometeorology was once a operating department of climatology. within the years following 1950 it then constructed generally to an self reliant technological know-how. during this technique, agrome­ teorology has not just received an enormous wisdom of the impact of meteorological stipulations on crops and cattle in agriculture and harm prevention, but also developed new advisory equipment that are of serious sensible use in agriculture. as much as the current time there was essentially no particular education for an agrometeorologist. Agrometeoro­ logists are drawn, in keeping with their education, from the ranks of normal meteorology or from agriculture and its comparable organic disciplines. they need to, accordingly, them­ selves assemble the information for his or her agrometeorological paintings and mix for themselves the advanced of agrome­ teorology from organic and meteorological details. this is often usuaIIy faraway from effortless, because the suitable literature is scattered one of the most generally differing journals, in part in little-known overseas languages, and is therefore very tricky of entry. finished writings are to be discovered merely in only a few partial fields of agrometeorology. the topic of teaching difficulties has hence been handled as of extreme significance on the conferences ofthe fee for Agrometeorology (CAgM) of the area Meteorological association (WMO), specifically as agrometeorology has received such nice value and necessary­ ness not just within the so-called underdeveloped international locations in advancing a extra efficient agriculture, but in addition in coun­ attempts whose agricultural normal is already high.

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Qc)m The importance of thermal diffusivity in the determination of heat flux in the soil will be discussed elsewhere. Heat flux within the soil has a great influence on the temperature conditions in the ground-proximate air layer. With stable energy requirements for vaporization, the air will warm up less strongly over soils with good heat conductivity than over Heat Flux in the Soil 37 Table 3. Average temperatures (a) and annual amplitudes (b) of three different soils (From W. 2 soils with poor heat conductivity.

30. 530cal'cm -2 . 395 cal·cm -2 'min- 1 4 Radiation Measurement Technology 1. SEEMANN Agricultural meteorology generally requires the following measurements of solar radiation: Global and reflected radiation (albedo) Net radiation, Light Infrared radiation. , measuring instruments with an angle of 1800 are used almost exclusively for measurements of global radiation. Their sensitivity reaches approximately 311. The most frequently used instruments are the solarimeter according to Moll-Gorczynski, the Eppley pyranometer, the stellar pyranometer of Linke and the actinograph of Robitzsch.

Certain rare gases are also to be found in the atmosphere, such as argon (Ar), xenon (X), neon (Ne), krypton (Kr), hydrogen (H), helium (He), and so on. These main gases are in almost constant proportion with one another up to about 90 km above the earth. Beyond this altitude, the mixture undergoes a slow modification. In addition to the main constituent gases of the atmosphere, there are other gases found in proportions which vary widely depending on the altitude, time of year and/or meteorological conditions.

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