By Sandra L. Singer
In the interval among the Civil battle and global warfare I, German universities supplied North American girls with possibilities in graduate education that weren't available to them at domestic. This education allowed girls to compete to a better measure with males in more and more professionalized fields. In go back for such possibilities, those ladies performed a key function in starting up German universities to all girls. Many dedicated the remainder of their lives to making higher examine and graduate possibilities for different ladies, ceaselessly altering the process greater schooling in North America.
This learn offers money owed of the outstanding boundaries encountered via those first girls scholars in Europe. It records their perseverance and hard-won triumphs and comprises besides the tales of the revolutionary males who mentored them and fought for his or her rights to better schooling. by no means prior to has documentation of such a lot of North American scholars at German-speaking universities been integrated in a single quantity. This choice of tales from ladies throughout disciplines makes it attainable to evaluate the really impressive nature in their mixed contributions to better schooling and learn in North the United States and Europe.
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Extra info for Adventures Abroad. North American Women at German-Speaking Universities, 1868-1915
For the 1,266 North American women included in the original database, only 658 records listed the woman's religion. 114 The hostility toward Russian-Jewish students dated back at least to the second wave of Russian students at German-speaking universities that began in the early 1880s. The first wave of Russians had a relatively low percentage of Jewish students. Only about 10 percent of the Russian women at Zurich during the 1870s were Jewish. 118 Why did enrollments for Jewish students increase so dramatically starting in the 1880s?
German universities did not wish to offer Russian women such a refuge. 94 Thomas's fear was indirectly confirmed by the action taken by the Saxon Ministry of Culture in December of 1879. On December 4, 1879, the rector of the university, L. Lange, tried to reassure the government that the women students were no threat by stating explicitly that there were no Russians among the ten women auditing classes. 95 Auditors already at the university were allowed to stay, but no new auditors were admitted.
96 Once women were allowed to audit classes again, measures were sought Studying Abroad 19 to limit the enrollment of the Russians. Officials were able to limit enrollment by determining what level of prior study was necessary for admission. 97 As soon as auditors were admitted, 22 Russian women enrolled in medical courses. The medical faculty complained that these women did not have the proper background; the women did not have sufficient knowledge of Latin. 98 There was a constant struggle at Bern to limit the number of Russian women students, who started to arrive in increasing numbers in 1873.