Advances in Personality Psychology: Volume II by Andrzej Eliasz, Sarah E. Hampson

By Andrzej Eliasz, Sarah E. Hampson

The second one quantity within the Advances in character Psychology sequence, this publication offers an authoritative number of works by means of prime specialists within the box. It makes a speciality of 3 of the foremost concerns in character psychology: character, have an effect on and arousal; character and intelligence; and character constitution. the 1st a part of the e-book seeks to examine cognitive biases depending on nervousness and the organic foundations of inspiration and motion. It additionally appears on the impression of temperamental qualities on response to stressful occasions. within the moment half, contributions think about the mutual relatives among character and intelligence, the similarities and modifications among character and intelligence, and the cognitive mechanisms of human intelligence and character. the ultimate half analyses character constitution throughout cultures and offers a version of character appropriate to situational descriptions. the entire authors are skilled and popular specialists within the box of character psychology. the amount comprises severe studies, bringing the reader updated with key matters, and particular info from modern empirical examine initiatives, reflecting the range and power of present paintings on character psychology.

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This trait seems to be a risk factor of emotional disturbances and the more general tendency to react to life stress by depression, which may lead to somatic diseases. The role of temperamental activity is more complex. Activity may have a beneficial effect because it leads to effective coping with life stress and self-efficacy, but may result in overstimulation and overarousal as well, especially in the presence of environmental stressors. Low activity does not lead to over-arousal, but at the same time it has no beneficial effects in the form of individual efficacy.

This finding is fairly consistent with data from other studies (Rahe, 1987; Brown and Harris, 1989) and indicates that stress increases the probability of emotional disturbances. The results show, as expected, that emotional reactivity, which is related to emotional arousal, may be considered as a risk factor of affective disorders. The role of temperamental activity is less clear. On the basis of our theoretical model, activity may be treated as a regulator of the level of arousal, but also as a trait which should have a direct impact on the individual’s adaptation to the environment (active persons are more able to manage life problems; Zawadzki, 2001).

The same state of stress, in terms of intensity, may result from low intensity life events interacting with high emotionality, as well as from high intensity life events interacting with low emotionality. Taking into account these considerations we hypothesized that life events result in changes of psychological health measured by psychological distress and well-being. However, the relationship life events-psychological health will be, modified by emotional reactivity and activity. It was expected that emotional reactivity increases psychological distress whereas activity enhances well-being.

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