Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology (8th Edition) by Allan H. Ropper, Robert H. Brown

By Allan H. Ropper, Robert H. Brown

A new tackle the vintage, definitive textual content at the complete spectrum of neurology. Reflecting a contemporary method of neurology, Adams and Victor�s rules of Neurology, 8/e new layout highlights a extra whole and obtainable methods to therapy and scientific administration techniques. This completely revised version gains extra insurance of therapy and neuroimaging, renown symptoms sections built-in all through, and over 800 illustrations.

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In these cases, extra scalp leads in the anterior frontal and temporal regions (which are the most free of alpha frequencies) may pick up the discharge, especially during sleep. In some such cases, the only way in which this deep activity can be sampled is by inserting an electrode into the substance of the brain or placing a grid of electrodes in the subdural space, but this procedure is applicable only to the relatively few patients who are undergoing craniotomy. Occasionally one may fail to record an EEG abnormality in the course of one of the types of focal seizure (sensory, jacksonian, partial complex, epilepsia partialis continua) or in polymyoclonus.

5 mV. ) CHAPTER 2 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES FOR NEUROLOGIC DIAGNOSIS As indicated above, PSVER is especially valuable in proving the existence of active or residual disease of an optic nerve. Examinations of large numbers of patients who were known to have had retrobulbar (optic) neuritis has shown that only a small proportion will have normal latencies. Furthermore, similar abnormalities of PSVER are found in about one-third of multiple sclerosis patients who have no history or clinical evidence of optic nerve involvement.

The most pathologic finding of all is the replacement of the normal EEG pattern by “electrocerebral silence,” meaning that the electrical activity of the cortical mantle, recorded from the scalp, is absent. Artifacts of various types should be seen as the amplifier gains are increased; if not, there is a risk that the leads are not properly connected to the machine. Acute intoxication with high levels of drugs such as barbiturates can produce this sort of isoelectric EEG (Fig. 2-3I). Moreover, in the absence of nervous system depressants or extreme degrees of hypothermia, a record that is “flat” (less than 2 mV except for artifacts) over all parts of the head is almost always a result of profound cerebral hypoxia or ischemia or of trauma and raised intracranial pressure.

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