By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the twentieth century was once marked through a shift in how welfare-states take care of these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a for receiving minimal source of revenue merits - which, in a few nations, used to be complemented through efforts to assist recipients go back to the labour industry, particularly throughout the funding in lively labour marketplace rules (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 eu countries (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this e-book argues that this primary set of reforms was once by way of a moment wave of reforms that, when deepening the trail in the direction of the point of interest on paintings, brings vital recommendations- be it the instruments used to aid recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation guidelines are introduced (ex., integration of gain and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we figure key developments.
The first matters the strengthening of the position of the industry within the governance of activation, that is obvious within the strengthening of the point of interest on paintings, or the marketisation of employment providers. the second one, matters a movement in the direction of the individualisation of provider supply, seen within the growth of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline carrier supply.
Finally, we convey that the onset of the sovereign debt problem in Europe, has brought on a brand new wave of reforms. when tentative basically, our research issues to a being concerned development of the curtailment or merits (Portugal) and activation providers (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, an extra deepening of the point of interest on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Extra resources for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
In Ivar Lødemel & H. ), An offer you can’t refuse: Workfare in international perspective (pp. 215–247). Bristol, UK: Policy Press. 2 NORWEGIAN ACTIVATION REFORM ON A WAVE OF WIDER WELFARE STATE CHANGE A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT Erika Gubrium, Ivan Harsløf, and Ivar Lødemel INTRODUCTION At the turn of the millennium, Norway was a European outlier featuring an activation program for minimum income recipients sharing many characteristics with US-style workfare. In contrast, a recent European Union report describes Norway’s new activation measures for this group as good examples of a modern individualized approach, with tailoring and personalized programming as key features (Duffy, 2010).
Arguing that activation for social assistance recipients in late 1990s Norway was close to an idealized definition of workfare, several analysts have referred to the ways in which national legislation facilitated a system of “work for 19 20 Activation or Workfare? welfare” wherein local authorities possessed a large degree of autonomy concerning whether and how to implement the conditions surrounding, selection for, and content of relevant programs (Vik-Mo & Nervik, 1999; Lødemel, 2001). Evidence from the implementation of conditional workfare painted a picture of programs that more closely resembled those in the United States than those in other European nations (Lødemel & Trickey, 2001).
Accordingly, otherwise able-bodied people who could no longer continue in their current occupations due to health issues would only be entitled to benefits for a maximum of 3 months (Amendment to the Law on Social Insurance, 2006). 32 Activation or Workfare? Finally, reforms of the disability benefit program also bear witness to the expanded work approach, albeit with a more individualized approach for some target groups similar to that applied to Qualification Program participants. A 1- to 4-year temporary disability benefit scheme introduced in 2004 provided an individual follow-up plan and targeted individuals with psychosomatic or psychological diagnoses such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, and anxiety.