A Dictionary of Science, Fifth Edition by John Daintith

By John Daintith

This best-selling dictionary includes over 9,000 entries on all points of technological know-how and offers complete assurance of biology (including human biology), chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, and astronomy. Appendices disguise the periodic desk, geological time scale, and animal and plant category. New positive factors contain digital thumb tags for simple reference, multiplied components together with astronomy and earth technological know-how and extra positive factors on key issues resembling the sunlight procedure and Genetically transformed Organisms. additionally featured are brief biographies of top scientists and chronologies of particular matters, together with plastics, electronics and phone biology. either concise and wide-ranging, this dictionary is a perfect convenient reference paintings and nice advent for college kids and non-scientists alike.

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It is used as a mordant for dyeing and in the tanning and Ünishing of leather goods (for white leather). See also alums. d. d. 5°C). The anhydrous salt is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol; the hydrate is very soluble in water and insoluble in ethanol. 18H2O). It may be prepared by dissolving aluminium hydroxide or china 31 clays (aluminosilicates) in sulphuric acid. It decomposes on heating to sulphur dioxide, sulphur trioxide, and aluminium oxide. Its solutions are acidic because of hydrolysis.

The metal itself is highly reactive but is protected by a thin transparent layer of the oxide, which forms quickly in air. Aluminium and its aluminium hydroxide 29 oxide are amphoteric. The metal is extracted from puriÜed bauxite (Al2O3) by electrolysis; the main process uses a *Hall–Heroult cell but other electrolytic methods are under development, including conversion of bauxite with chlorine and electrolysis of the molten chloride. Pure aluminium is soft and ductile but its strength can be increased by workhardening.

E. one that has no longrange order in its lattice. Many powders that are described as ‘amorphous’ in fact are composed of microscopic crystals, as can be demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. *Glasses are examples of true amorphous solids. amount concentration See concentration. amount of substance Symbol n. A measure of the number of entities present in a substance. , or any speciÜed group of such entities. The amount of substance of an element, for example, is proportional to the number of atoms present.

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